დახმარება:IPA for English
If the words illustrating two symbols sound the same to you (say, if you pronounce cot and caught the same, or do and dew, or marry and merry), you can ignore the difference between those symbols. Footnotes explain some of these mergers. (See also #Dialect variation below.)
- ↑ If the two characters თარგი:Angle bracket and თარგი:Angle bracket do not match and if the first looks like a თარგი:Angle bracket, then you have an issue with your default font. See Rendering issues.
- ↑ The IPA value of the letter თარგი:Angle bracket is counter-intuitive to many English speakers. However, it does occur with this sound in a few English words: Besides hallelujah, there's Jägermeister and jarlsberg cheese.
- ↑ Although the IPA symbol [r] represents a trill, /r/ is widely used instead of /ɹ/ in broad transcriptions of English.
- ↑ The phoneme /hw/ is not distinguished from /w/ in the many dialects with the wine–whine merger, such as RP and most varieties of GenAm. For more information on this sound, see voiceless labio-velar approximant.
- ↑ A number of English words, such as genre and garage, are pronounced with either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
- ↑ In most dialects, /x/ is replaced by /k/ in most words, including loch. Where the sound begins a word, such as Chanukah, it is sometimes replaced with /h/. In ugh, however, it is often replaced by /ɡ/ (a spelling pronunciation).
- ↑ In non-rhotic accents like RP, /r/ is not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. In some Wikipedia articles, /ɪər/ etc. may not be distinguished from /ɪr/ etc. These should be fixed to correspond with the chart here.
- ↑ /ɒ/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ in dialects with the father–bother merger such as GenAm.
- ↑ In some regions, what would normally be [æŋ] is pronounced as [eŋ] or [eɪŋ], so that the "a" in "rang" is closer to the "ai" in "rain" than the "a" in "rag"
- ↑ Pronounced the same as /ɛr/ in accents with the Mary–marry–merry merger.
- ↑ Many speakers, for example in most of Canada and much of the United States, have a different vowel in price and ride. Generally, an [aɪ] is used at the ends of words and before voiced sounds, as in ride, file, fine, pie, while an [ʌɪ] is used before voiceless sounds, as in price and write. Because /t/ and /d/ are often conflated in the middle of words in these dialects, derivatives of these words, such as rider and writer, may be distinguished only by their vowel: [ˈɹʷaɪɾəɹ], [ˈɹʷʌɪɾəɹ]. However, even though the value of /aɪ/ is not predictable in some words, such as spider [ˈspʌɪɾəɹ],[საჭიროებს წყაროს მითითებას] dictionaries do not generally record it, so it has not been allocated a separate transcription here.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Some speakers pronounce higher, flower, lawyer, and mayor with two syllables, and hire, flour, loir, and mare with one. Others pronounce them the same.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Transcribed as /e/ by many dictionaries.
- ↑ Pronounced the same as /ɛr/ in accents with the Mary–marry–merry merger. Often transcribed as /eə/ by British dictionaries and as /er/ by American ones. The OED uses /ɛː/ for BrE and /ɛ(ə)r/ for AmE.
- ↑ Same as /ɪr/ in accents with the mirror–nearer merger.
- ↑ /ɔː/ is not distinguished from /ɒ/ (except before /r/) in dialects with the cot–caught merger such as some varieties of GenAm.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 /ɔər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the horse–hoarse merger, which include most dialects of modern English.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 18.2 /ʊər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the pour–poor merger, including many younger speakers.
- ↑ Commonly transcribed /əʊ/ or /oː/.
- ↑ In dialects with yod dropping, /juː/ is pronounced the same as /uː/ after coronal consonants (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, and /l/) in the same syllable, so that dew /djuː/ is pronounced the same as do /duː/. In dialects with yod coalescence, /tj/, /dj/, /sj/ and /zj/ are pronounced /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/ and /ʒ/, so that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronounced the same as choose.
- ↑ This phoneme is not used in the northern half of England, some bordering parts of Wales, and some broad eastern Ireland accents. These words would take the ʊ vowel: there is no foot–strut split.
- ↑ Pronounced [ə] in Australian and many US dialects, and [ɪ] in Received Pronunciation. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ɪ̈] and a reduced [ə]. Many phoneticians (vd. Olive & Greenwood 1993:322) and the OED use the pseudo-IPA symbol თარგი:Angle bracket , and Merriam–Webster uses თარგი:Angle bracket.
- ↑ Pronounced [ə] in many dialects, and [ɵw] or [əw] before another vowel, as in cooperate. Sometimes pronounced as a full /oʊ/, especially in careful speech. (Bolinger 1989) Usually transcribed as /ə(ʊ)/ (or similar ways of showing variation between /oʊ/ and /ə/) in British dictionaries.
- ↑ Pronounced [ʊ] in many dialects, [ə] in others. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ʊ̈] and a reduced [ə]. The OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol თარგი:Angle bracket .
- ↑ Pronounced [iː] in dialects with the happy tensing, [ɪ] in other dialects. British convention used to transcribe it with თარგი:Angle bracket, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to თარგი:Angle bracket.
- ↑ It is arguable that there is no phonemic distinction in English between primary and secondary stress (vd. Ladefoged 1993), but it is conventional to notate them as here.
- ↑ Full vowels following a stressed syllable, such as the ship in battleship, are marked with secondary stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but not in others (the OED). Such syllables are not actually stressed.
- ↑ Syllables are indicated sparingly, where necessary to avoid confusion, for example to break up sequences of vowels (moai) or consonant clusters which an English speaker might misread as a digraph (Vancouveria, Windhoek).
Several dictionaries, such as the OED, do not indicate stress for words of one syllable. Thus hire /ˈhaɪər/ is transcribed თარგი:Angbr, without a stress mark, contrasting with higher /ˈhaɪ.ər/, which is transcribed თარგი:Angbr, without a syllable mark.